Salerno's Medical school (IXth-XVth century a.C.) collected and fused in a cultural unit various traditions of the past: Latin, Hebrew, Greek and Arab.
It is the most ancient and illustrious medical medieval institution of the western world. The acquaintance of medicinal grass was remarkable, to which was entrusted the cure of every disease. The fundamental garnishments of the School are collected into Regimen Sanitatis Salernitanum or 'Flos medicinæ Scholæ Salerni', a treaty of medical literature and popular wisdom, wrote with leonini verses, which is inspired to the simple's virtue and to the garnishments of rigid physical and moral hygiene.
People placed considerable trust in the therapeutic qualities of plants. One of the most popular beliefs was that only “Contra vim mortis non est medicamentum in hortis”, in other words only the power of death could not be treated with medical plants. The most representative characters of this school are Costantino the African, translator of Arabic works, the famous Arnaldo da Villanova (who was considered one of the wisest man of his time) and Matteo Silvatico, who wrote Pandette, a book which illustrated several vegetable remedies.