Pharmacopoeia universalis, das ist: Allgemeiner Medicinisch - Chimischer Arzney - Schatz nebst D.Friedrich Hoffmanns darüber verfassten Herrlichen Anwerkungen, Dritter Theil, worinnen die Kräuter und Gemächs nebst der Thier-Lehre durch Bereitung und
The "Medico-chemical Pharmacopeia of Johann Schröders" is an extremely authoritative treatise for the times, presenting as it does all of the pharmacological wisdom of Europe. The first division is into two large classes: food (culinary art) and pharmaceuticals. Pharmacology is called res naturalis medicamentalis and proposes simple and composite medicinals. The constitution, or sensitive property of the drug, is very important: it is distinguished by just a few factors such as the method for harvesting and producing the medicinals, their odor and their taste. Also important is the usurpatione, or method of administration and the theory of the signatures of natural things, indicative also of their medicinal value.There follows a discussion and commentary on the actual chemical components of the medicinals before moving onto solar and lunar medical treatments with observations on the influence of astrology. These influences from the heavens are more or less propitious for chemical preparations: the moon stimulates the growth of the lizard’s liver; poisonous plants such as hellebore and hemlock are dependent on Saturn; only Mercury is a positive heavenly body and all good remedies derive from it. Schröders’ principal classification of medicinals is as follows: alexipharmic astringents, astringents, caustics, vesicants, anodynes, aperients, apophlegmatics, artetici, attenuants, attractants, antitussives, catarrhetics or cathartic and others. It is interesting to consider the comparison between the juice of medicinal plants and blood of animals: juice can be transformed into resin, oil and rubber, just as from blood can be had urine, bile and excrement. The Pharmacopeia presents numerous fascinating theories dedicated to the human and animal world, whose originality and, sometimes, ingenuousness amaze us. Many other pages document the constant use in the pharmacy of plant derivatives and methods of extraction of the same. As an example, we have the description of the extraction in Sweden of the juice of the birch through a simple incision in the plant: it gives us a ready-made medicinal and an exquisite beverage for ladies.